Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting American women with 1 in 8 women diagnosed during their lifetime. There are several risk factors involved in the development of breast cancer, some of which are modifiable (weight/BMI, hormone use, smoking and alcohol use) while others cannot be changed or controlled (age, genetics). Increasing age is considered the most significant risk factor for this diagnosis, and it may contribute to the treatment decisions as chronologically advanced women may have other co-morbidities that must be considered.
As we age, our organs experience various changes that can affect surgical healing. For example, the skin becomes thinner and has less connective tissue like collagen and elastin, all of which can lead to delayed healing. While we cannot reverse this physiologic process, we can control other components like smoking. All nicotine products cause vasoconstriction, which makes it more difficult for the arteries to deliver necessary oxygen and nutrients to all organs and tissue. Smoking and the use of nicotine products exponentially increases the risks of surgery and can sometimes disqualify a patient from reconstructive surgery. We prefer that any patient undergoing reconstructive surgery be off all nicotine products for at least 6 weeks.
General anesthesia is required during breast reconstructive surgery whether using implants or autologous aka tissue-based reconstruction. At Breast Reconstruction Associates, we use a two-surgeon team on all autologous cases to minimize the length of surgery and therefore the amount of anesthesia, which directly correlates to quicker recovery times. Age is a consideration for these surgeries as there are increased risks of post-operative delirium and post-operative cognitive dysfunction in patients aged 65 and older. These patients are at higher risk if they have an established diagnosis of any form of cognitive impairment.
At Breast Reconstruction Associates, we offer various reconstructive options for our patients and always involve the patients in this discussion and decision process. Each patient is unique due to their age, medical and family history, and tumor profile among many other considerations. We want to work with you and your breast cancer team to determine the best possible outcome, so please contact us today to set up a consultation.
“Preparing for Surgery – Age Risks,” American Society of Anesthesiologists, https://www.asahq.org/whensecondscount/preparing-for-surgery/risks/age/.